In the 21st century, the human world is surrounded by all kinds of electronic devices. From the biggest electronic devices to the smallest ones. The one thing common to all these electronic devices is the PCB. It’s the main component, or what we call the “brain,” of electronic devices.
The PCB board full form is a “Printed Circuit Board”. A printed circuit board is a thin board with copper lines and attaching holes for the circuit’s components. An electrical component is used to make the board. A PCB might have one, two, or more sides. Boards with two or more sides can have tracks on multiple planes that connect via connectors, which are layered holes.
Maybe many people still don’t know what PCB is. However, today I will go over every detail of PCB for you. what are PCB, PCB types, PCB production processes, and applications of PCB? For your knowledge, let me say that there are more than 13000 companies in India that prepare printed circuit boards.
Table of Content
- What is PCB?
- How to make a Printed Circuit Board Step by Step.
- 6 characteristics Of PCB(Printed Circuit Board).
- History of PCB.
- Applications Of Printed Circuit Board.
- Advantages of PCB.
- Disadvantages of PCB.
What is PCB?
Printed Circuit Board is fiberglass with a copper laminated circuit plate in which electronic components like a diode, resistance, capacitor, and other components are connected without wires to a PCB plate. On this plate, we can easily solder copper circuits.
When a printed circuit board is not developed at that time, all the electronic components are connected with a wire, which is so difficult and less reliable.
But when a PCB is designed, the electronic component is connected to a conducting layer without wire. So it reduces the complexity of the circuit.
PCB are used in almost all electrical devices, like laptops, TVs, remotes, mobile phones, CPUs, cameras, DVDs, medical devices, aerospace devices, industrial devices, and many more devices.
How to make a Printed Circuit Board Step by Step.
Now we understand how to produce a printed circuit board. The first step is to use any popularly used PCB design software or Microsoft Office to prepare the circuit layout. A layout circuit diagram should be used to design the component layout. Copy the layout on the transparent sheets and print it out using a laser printer. Verify that the design is accurate and that the components are placed properly.
Cut the copper board into the correct shape for the layout; the board might have one, two, or more layers. Single-layer copper boards are used to create single-layer PCB, which are frequently used in small circuits. They have a copper layer on one side of the PCB. A PCB that has copper on both sides is known as a double-layer copper board. Industries typically use these concepts.
Most of the time, complex circuits like PCB boards are constructed in multi-layer plates, which are made of multiple copper layers which are costly. Use a cotton ball to clean copper plates. Remove the photo resistance and top outer layer that are on top of this copper, as well as any additional layers.
Put the PCB sheet on top of the transparent sheets which have the printed layout. Place the printed side PCB on a copper plate. Start ironing after placing a white piece of paper on the transparent sheets.
The ink on the transparent sheets is marked the same way it is printed there by the heat from the electric iron. The PCB layout will now be printed on this copper sheet. Remove the transparent sheets and cover them carefully once the PCB plate has cooled.
Because it is possible that this design could break down, the PCB or some of the tracks could break. Complete the tracks correctly with a permanent marker.
The PCB has now been printed with the layout. The ferric chloride can now be handled. You should put some water in a plastic container. Add 2 to 3 ml of ferric chloride to the water. Next, put the copper plate in some water. The unneeded copper is then removed from the PCB as a result of the reaction between the (Fecl3) and the unfilled copper, which keeps the water for almost 30 minutes.
Etching is the name of this method. Use a hotplate to check the PCB quality while running water all over the pan. Cleaning with cold water. Remove the PCB and use steel wool to rub the ink away. The extra space is made up of copper rails that conduct electricity and connect the components at a speed in keeping with the speed of the circuit.
The PCB will now be drilled on the reflection pad using a drilling machine. Put the parts together and punch them into the proper holes.
After this activity, be sure to wash your hands, clean your equipment, and dispose of waste from the (FeCl3) solution.
The name of the biggest PCB manufacturing company in India is PCB Power Market.
6 characteristics Of PCB(Printed Circuit Board).
There are several types of PCB(Printed Circuit Board). we discuss the top 6 types of PCB
- Single Layer PCB
- Double Layer PCB
- Multi-Layer PCB
- Rigid PCB
- Flex PCB
- Rigid-Flex PCB
1. Single-Layer PCB.
A single-layer PCB is also called a single-sided PCB. There is only one layer. In this type of PCB, components are on one side, and the other side is for the conductor pattern.
It is mostly used in a variety of electronic sectors. Its design is very easy, with less cost and less time. It is easy to understand the circuit. It is the most reliable of the other types of PCB. Drilling, soldering, and component insertion are so easy.
You will find this type of printed circuit board in many small household devices like LED lights, radios, calculators, printers, and coffee-makers.
2. Double Layer PCB.
A double-layered printed circuit board comes with two layers. This type of PCB is coated with non-conductive material over which a layer of copper is coated on the top and bottom of the board.
At the correct points, this PCB board has two layers. All of these are connected to every hole in the electrical board. The board’s two sides were simply soldered. This PCB allows a high component density. On this PCB you can see a whole extra layer where you can add a track to connect components.
In a double-layer printed circuit board, increased heat separates what an extra level of copper provides. This can be achieved in the drawing process by only removing enough copper to produce the tracks, leaving the extra copper to be removed. It was designed by a designer with more flexibility, which increased circuit density. It reduced board size and allowed low-cost manufacturers.
3. Multi-layer PCB.
A multi-layer PCB(Printed Circuit Board) is designed with three or more copper layers. These come out to be layers of double-layer circuit boards laminated and sometimes dropped together with several layers of heat-protective privacy in between them.
The multi-layer PCB is naturally smaller and lighter than other PCB. Multi-layer PCB are commonly high-density and have greater capacity as well as speed than other PCB.
4. Rigid PCB.
Rigid PCB(Printed Circuit Board) is produced with good raw material, but it’s inflexible, meaning you can’t bend it. Rigid PCB normally come in two different types: one single dual-layer and another multi-layer rigid.
Rigid PCB have different configurations compared to single-layer and multi-layer PCB. When it is installed, you can’t change its size.
This PCB has the longest working performance. So it used mostly computer devices like ROM, CPU, GPU, or RAM. It’s very simple and commonly used.
This PCB is the cheapest as compared to other flexible PCB. It’s more durable than other flexible boards.
It connects the many circuits on a rigid PCB, copper illusion, and the circuits are merged together on a single circuit board. This is in high demand because of its high quality, thickness, and supply.
The rigid PCB is used by many electronic devices like computers, laptops, mobile phones, tablets, X-ray machines, heart monitors, industrial equipment, and military or defense equipment anywhere where a complex circuit is needed.
5. Flex PCB.
A Flex PCB is classified as a single-layer, double-layer, or multiple-layer circuit. It is more suitable for various applications because it has unique features than a rigid circuit board. A flexible PCB is made of materials that can bend, in comparison to many inflexible designs, providing it with better resistance to noise and action.
Both connectors and complete circuits created using components may be used with flex boards. Based on the type of material surface used, it can survive much higher heat than rigid PCB and still maintain the soldering heat.
A solid layer of traces, mainly copper, is attached to an electrical double layer, generally easily worked, to create a flexible printed circuit. The thickness of the flex PCB is very thin.
6. Rigid-flex PCB.
This Rigid-flex PCB was designed as a merge of the flexible circuit and the rigid circuit. Depending on the structure of the application, rigid-flex PCB generally includes several layers of flexible circuit boards which are physically joined between one or more rigid boards.
This PCB includes several flexible layers connected by several rigid PCB layers. This type of PCB is mostly used in digital cameras, mobile phones, motors, etc.
Rigid-flex PCB are designed to provide solutions and work as a replacement for rigid PCB. The flexible boards are typically made through flexible bending after manufacturing or installation and are designed to be in a state of constant flexibility.
Generally, the rigid-flex PCB flexible part has a multi-layer design with insulated connections to maintain connectivity between layers. In rigid-flex PCB, genuine sub-circuits are now created on the flexible surfaces themselves, rather than simply using the flexible surface to remove circuit boards.
Rigid-flex PCB include high chemical resistance, flexible design solutions, strong printed circuit capacity, and high-temperature conduction. Using rigid-flex circuit boards can considerably reduce total PCB prices.
It gives stable connections for all other circuits. It also helps reduce the number of connector components in an application. Rigid-flex is A good choice for industrial applications. Because of their capacity to decrease product weight, they are mostly used in military, aircraft, and medical applications. This is because they are small and lightweight.
History of PCB.
Now we will discuss the history of PCB. The earliest board printing or printed circuit boards were manufactured at the beginning of the 20th century, but Charles Ducas, an American designer, produced an electrical channel on a protected surface in 1925, which led to the printed circuit board rise in popularity. The “printed wire” concept was also the subject of a design patent by him.
In 1936 an Austrian engineer Paul Eisler invented the printed circuit that was part of a radio set while working in the united kingdom.
They were later used by the United States in World War 2 to make proximity fuses. The United States published the invention for commercial purposes after World War 2. Year after year they are updated, and today they are found in many electronic devices.
Applications Of Printed Circuit Board.
As technology has become an integral part of our daily lives, printed circuit boards, or PCB, play a crucial function in the modern world. Since they are utilized in practically all electronic and electrical devices, these circuit boards serve as a base. Mention the application of PCB below.
We mostly use a lot of devices in our daily lives, like mobile phones, laptops, computers, tablets, digital cameras, smartwatches, refrigerators, microwaves, coffee makers, televisions, DVD players, and headphones devices.
Printed circuit boards contribute to the medical sector. PCB is also used as a monitoring and treatment device. Like blood glucose monitors, heart rate, blood pressure monitors, CT scanners, ultrasonic technology, heart pacemakers, electronic microscopes, photometers, and compressors.
Manufacturing equipment, power equipment like power supplies, power inverters, and power distribution, and measuring equipment like DC to AC power inverters, and solar power.
Navigation, media devices, and control devices surround the monitor.
aircraft, control towers, satellites, monitoring equipment, accelerometers, pressure sensors, microphones, and force sensors in air vehicles, and testing equipment.
LEDs are also used in many industries, including computer technology, automobiles, and the medical sector. Like vehicle indicators, headlights, and brake lights, the LED PCB also uses power to display computers and laptops.
Advantages of PCB.
Given the below points, we discuss the Advantages of PCB
- Printed circuit boards are available in small sizes and transportation is very simple.
- Compared to conventional wiring, the probabilities of connected components breaking and disconnecting are very low in the PCB.
- It takes less time to design.
- To design PCB, less wire is needed.
- The PCB provides more options for locating and fixing required components.
- When compared to conventional wiring, troubleshooting, inspecting, and replacing defective components or connections on PCB is quite simple.
- A multimeter can be used to quickly assess the failure components on a PCB under a short circuit or fault state. As a result, maintenance is minimal.
- PCB boards are easily available on the market for a good price.
Disadvantages of PCB.
We mention All Disadvantages of PCB below
- It is impossible to change a circuit once it has been printed on a PCB board.
- To connect or attach the electronic components on the PCB, soldering is a necessary
- For the PCB to be developed, the etching technique must be used, which is quite dangerous.
- Only the particular features and functions of systems or devices may be used with this circuit.
In this pcb subject, you will learn about PCB; like what a PCB is, how designed a PCB is, the types of PCB, the history of PCB, and their advantages and disadvantages. We will mention all the details about the PCB. I hope you have understood all about PCB.